कहानी एक बुजुर्ग जोड़े की -भाग २

अभी तक आपने पढ़ा नीरज के बारे में, उसके परिवार के बारे में, और उसके स्वभाव और काम के बारे में, अब पढ़िए इस कहानी के अगले किरदार यानि की उस लड़की के बारे में जो नीरज से जुड़ी हुई है |

भाग -१ को पढने के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करे

उस लड़की का नाम था चित्रा सिंह | चित्रा एक जमीदार परिवार में जन्मी थी जो पैसे में काफी संपन्न थे और उसके पिता भोला सिंह एक प्रसिद्ध व्यापारी भी थे | चित्रा के पिता एक बहुत ही कट्टर परिवार के जमीदार थे और आन मान और शान के लिए कुछ भी करने को तैयार रहते थे | चित्रा की माँ तुलसी देवी बहुत ही सात्विक स्वाभाव की थी | घरेलु काम में माहिर होने के साथ साथ वो सामाजिक कार्यो में भी काफी दिलचस्पी रखती थी | चित्रा की एक बहन भी थी जिसका नाम था आतिया सिंह वो चित्रा से २ साल बड़ी थी और एक भाई था रमेश सिंह जो चित्रा से ५ साल बड़ा था | Continue reading “कहानी एक बुजुर्ग जोड़े की -भाग २”

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Life story of Mukesh Ambani

Mukesh Ambani is an Indian business tycoon, Chairman of Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) and is ranked among the richest people in the world. He is the richest person in India and is considered to be one of the world’s most powerful personalities. His brilliance and success can be derived from the fact that his company is currently India’s second most valuable company by market value. Continue reading “Life story of Mukesh Ambani”

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Definitions of Motivation

The word Motivation derives from the Latin word “Movere”. The Latin words “Movere” means “To move”, “To drive” or “To drive forward” etc.

  1. Glueck said about Motivation as “Motivation is the inner state that energizes channels and sustains human behavior.”2.In Encyclopedia of Management – “Motivation refers to the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designed goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of forces inducing the degree of readiness.”

    3. Joe Kelly defined Motivation as “Motivation is a process whereby needs instigate behavior directed towards the goals that can satisfy those needs.”

  2. Koontz and O’donnell-“Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, needs, wishes and similar forces.”
  3. Eduir B. Flippo – “Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do yours will through the possibility of gain reward.”
  4. Delton E. MC Farland – “The concept of motivation is mainly psychological. It relates to those forces operating within the individual employee or subordinate which impel him to act or not to act in certain ways.”
  5. William G. Scott -“Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goods.”

 

 

 

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Marketing – Concept & Definition

Marketing – Concept & Definition

  • The AMA managerial definition:

 “Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives

  • Kotler’s social definition:

 “Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and services of value with others.”

  • Mary Ellen Bianco

Marketing includes research, targeting, communications (advertising and direct mail) and often public relations. Marketing is to sales as plowing is to planting for a farmer – it prepares an audience to receive a direct sales pitch.

  • Peter Drucker 

Marketing is not only much broader than selling; it is not a specialized activity at all.  It encompasses the entire business.  It is the whole business seen from the point of view of the final result, that is, from the customer’s point of view.  Concern and responsibility for marketing must therefore permeate all areas of the enterprise.

  • William J. Stanton (System – oriented definition)

 Marketing is a total system of business activities designed to plan, price, promote, and distribute want satisfying product to target markets to achieve organization objective.

  • Cundiff and Still ( Customer – oriented definition)

Marketing is the business process by which products are matched with the markets and through which transfers of ownership are affected.

Holistic Marketing

Holistic marketing based on the concept, everything matters in marketing. The four components that characterize holistic marketing are relationship marketing, internal marketing, integrated marketing and socially responsive marketing.  Holistic Marketing helps converge the segments in an approach to improve the entire market through social responsibility and convergence. 

What Can Be Marketed?

  • Goods             
  • Properties
  • Organizations
  • Information
  • Ideas
  • Services
  • Experiences
  • Events
  • Persons

Core Marketing Concepts

  • Needs describe basic human requirements such as food, air, water, clothing, shelter, recreation, education, and entertainment.
  • Needs become wants when they are directed to specific objects that might satisfy the need. (Fast food)
  • Demands are wants for specific products backed by an ability to pay.

This short note will help students and those who are preparing for ugc and c.b.s.e net-jrf in commerce and management subjects. Please share your view point.

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